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Steve Morocco

Tim Birkett

It was submitted during the 2010–2015 Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition government

These diverse sources are capable of providing significant gas to meet the UK’s requirements and mean that UK gas market is resilient to all but the most extreme supply disruption events. There remains a risk of low probability but high impact events and the UK government takes this risk seriously.

Gas storage

Gas storage plays an important part in our gas system, but it is only one aspect alongside the import sources described above. Storage provides security of supply when demand is high, acting as a temporary balancing tool. Over winter 2013/14 storage withdrawal met 9% of our total gas needs, the remainder being met by other supply sources (Source: National Grid, DECC Energy Trends).

Given the constraints to the rate at which gas can be withdrawn from storage, it is misleading to calculate how many days of storage we have at any one time: our largest storage facility, called Rough, is only able to meet around 10% of peak winter daily demand but could do so continuously for around 80 days if starting from full.

Some countries on mainland Europe have more gas storage capacity than the UK but they don’t have the benefit of North Sea supply and our extensive range of import infrastructure.


When demand is high and supply is not immediately available, prices rise to attract gas to the UK market. Higher prices are likely to trigger greater flows over our interconnectors with the continent or Norway, additional flows from storage, and attract LNG tankers to UK terminals.

Retail prices of gas in the EU

In recent months wholesale gas prices have fallen. While short term fluctuations in wholesale gas prices are unlikely to have a significant impact on consumers’ bills as energy suppliers buy gas on the forward markets gradually over time, which protects suppliers and thus consumers from the volatility of the commodity markets, we would expect that sustained changes in key fundamental costs are passed onto the consumer. Ofgem has referred the energy markets to the competition authorities to ensure there are no barriers to effective competition. The UK ranks favourably to other EU-15 countries with the lowest gas prices for domestic consumers, including taxes, as well as some of the lowest for industrial users in 2013 (Source;

We know many consumers are really feeling the pinch due to rising energy prices, however, and the UK government has policies in place to help consumers, particularly the most vulnerable.

Multiple and significant losses to supply

’s 2012 Gas Security of Supply reportOfgem found that in a normal winter we would have to lose 50% of non-storage supplies for there to be an interruption to gas supplies to large industrial users and/or the power sector, and between 60% and 70% of all gas sources for there to be an interruption of supplies to domestic customers - equivalent to losing all LNG supply, all imports from the Continent and 50% of our production at the same time.

Nevertheless, in the unlikely event of a severe disruption to a number of sources of supply at a time of high demand, measures are in place to manage and minimise the potential impact on consumers. The owners and operators of the gas networks in the UK are required under established gas safety regulations to have adequate arrangements in place for dealing with supply emergencies. These arrangements aim to assure supplies to domestic consumers and to maximise an effective and timely response. As such industry is responsible for the operational management of the emergency and for notifying DECC as lead government department for the sector.

DECC would then be responsible for providing the interface between industry, central government, and other European countries, and for ensuring the public were kept well informed. It would also be responsible for understanding and managing the wider consequences that may arise from a major gas supply emergency and may have a role to play in the use of emergency powers in the very unlikely event these were needed.

Appendix 4: working internationally to maintain UK energy security

This was a supporting detail page of the main policy document.

Developments in international energy markets have major implications for the UK’s energy and economic security. As North Sea production declines, our dependency on imported oil and gas will grow and we will become increasingly exposed to the pressures and risks of global markets.

This will take place in a period of significant change. The next 2 decades will see global energy consumption increase substantially, driven by the rapid expansion of Asian economies. The patterns of trade are shifting accordingly and we are likely to face greater competition for more expensive resources. Global supply is also undergoing a quiet revolution as technological developments bring new resources into use.

The UK must stay ahead of these trends to secure reliable imports of oil and gas. Energy diplomacy plays a vital role in achieving this.

Increasing the use of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency

To increase the use of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency, which will in turn slow rising oil and gas demand, we work with a number of international organisations:

Read our policy on increasing the use of low-carbon technologies.

Read our policy on supporting industry, businesses and the public sector to become more energy efficient.

Encouraging global investment in oil and gas production

We encourage global investment in oil and gas production, and maximise UK commercial opportunities in doing so, through a range of bilateral relationships and multilateral initiatives.

We work with the International Energy Agency on analysis of investment needs and outlook. We also work with the Energy Charter Treaty on its rules to protect energy investments.

Promote your listings ads

Why do you label ads ‘promoted’?

We do this to show buyers that a seller has opted to use a paid service to showcase items in prominent locations on eBay. It’s about being transparent while providing the most relevant buying experience.

What does an ad look like?

An ad contains information from your listing, including your primary photo, listing title, price and format. If you revise your listing, your ad will automatically update to reflect the changes.

Where will my ads appear?

Your ads may appear in the following areas of the eBay site where you registered (UK, US, Germany or Australia) and are limited to that eBay site alone. Your promoted listings will appear in these locations:

  1. On desktop, at the bottom or on the right-hand side of the search results page
  2. On mobile, at key positions within the search results

Ads don’t appear on additional eBay sites – even if you sell internationally, or participate in the Global Shipping Programme. Where and when ads appear is based on a number of factors, including the listing quality, relevancy and your set ad rate.

Will my promoted listing appear if my listing is already shown in the search results?

Yes, your promoted listing may still be displayed even if the listing itself already appears within a buyer’s search results.

There is recognition of the need to attract new entrants into the UKCS to ensure the existence of a vibrant, activity-focused business community. This could lead to the evolution of the UKCS into an area where many smaller independent oil and gas companies are active. Lessons learnt from regulatory and business practises in the US Gulf of Mexico may help speed up this process. A clear message from the Gulf is that rapid turnover of leases stimulates exploration and appraisal activity and that the use of standardised legal agreements lubricates deal closure. This is particularly important when development opportunity size is decreasing and value must substitute for volume.

  • Spot the signs. This may initially mean taking a note of what you see as you walk around or in team meetings and then choosing the right moment to intervene
  • Engage with the problem. There are some good practical steps you can take to help with coping strategies, and some legal requirements you need to bear in mind. For example, your duty to make reasonable workplace adjustments to the working environment in certain circumstances
  • Keep a watching brief. This does not necessarily mean passively observing, although in some circumstances this may be the best option. Promote awareness of mental health issues and create a culture where employees feel they can talk to you about mental health issues. Keeping communication channels open is critical.

Is mental ill health a disability?

Some forms of mental ill health may be classed as a disability under the Equality Act 2010 if they have "a substantial and long-term adverse effect on a person's ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities."

The writer and academic told The Sun: ‘The assumption that I had was that this was the best deal that they could make for people who were living on pensions.

‘It’s really deceptive. I’m really annoyed to find out now that it probably wasn’t the best tariff to be on.

‘People will be stunned. Most will assume a tariff done in association with Age UK would be in their best interests.’

E.ON chief executive Tony Cocker (pictured left) pulled in £908,000 last year and pocketed a £510,000 bonus the year before. Pictured right is Age UK director Caroline Abrahams. The charity has rejected the allegations


The Citizenship Foundation offers a for primary schools.British values training package

We don't currently offer similar training for secondary schools, but the Association for Citizenship Teaching does periodically.

The big caveat

NOTE 2: On Canon 60D the longest automatic HDR exposure is limited to 30 seconds due to mechanical Bulb mode activation. A future Promote Control firmware update will prompt to activate Bulb mode manually as required. At this time using a higher ISO setting is recommended with Canon 60D if an exposure longer than 30 seconds is required in HDR mode.

Additional Shutter Cables
Click HERE to see compatible shutter cables. The shutter cable is not required for general operation and is optional.